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COMMONWEALTH ACT No. 408

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[14 September 1938]
As amended by Republic Acts 242 and 516 approved on 12 June 1948 and 14 June 1950, respectively, and further amended by Presidential Decree No. 1166 dated 24 June 1977 and further amended by Presidential Decree No. 1968 dated 11 Jan 1985

AN ACT FOR MAKING FURTHER AND MORE EFFECTUAL PROVISION

FOR THE NATIONAL DEFENSE BY ESTABLISHING A SYSTEM OF

MILITARY JUSTICE FOR PERSONS SUBJECT TO MILITARY LAW
Be it enacted by the National Assembly of the Philippines: Section 1. The following articles shall be known as the Articles of War and shall at all times govern the Armed Forces of the Philippines and the Philippine Constabulary. (As amended by RA 242)

TITLE I – PRELIMINARY PROVISIONS
Article 1. Definitions – The following words when used in these articles shall be construed in the sense indicated in this article, unless the context shows that a different sense is intended, namely:

The word “officer” shall be construed to refer to a commissioned officer, including a commissioned member of the nurse corps;
The word “soldier” shall be construed as including a non-commissioned officer, a private, or any other enlisted man;
The word “company” shall be understood as including a troop, battery, or commissioned vessels;
The word “battalion” shall be understood as including a squadron, air or naval.

[As amended by RA 516] Article 2. Persons subject to Military Law – The following persons are subject to these articles and shall be understood as included in the term “any person subject to military law” or persons subject to military law, whenever used in these articles:

All officers and soldiers in the active service of the Armed Forces of the Philippines or of the Philippine Constabulary; all members of the reserved force, from the dates of their call to active duty and while on such active duty; all trainees undergoing military instruction; and all other persons lawfully called, drafted, called into, or to duty or for training in, the said service, from the dates they are required by the terms of the call, draft, or order to obey the same;
Cadets, flying cadets, and probationary second lieutenants;
All retainers to the camp and all persons accompanying or serving with the Armed Forces of the Philippines in the field in time of war or when martial law is declared though not otherwise subject to these articles;
All persons under sentence adjudged by courts-martial.

[As amended by RAs 242 and 516]

TITLE II – COURTS MARTIAL
Article 3. Courts-martial Classified – Courts-martial shall be of three kinds, namely: First, General Courts-Martial Second, Special Courts-Martial, and Third, Summary Courts-Martial.

A. Composition
Article 4. Who May Serve on Courts-Martial – All officers in the active duty in the Armed Forces of the Philippines or in the Philippine Constabulary shall be competent to serve on courts-martial for the trial of any person who may lawfully be brought before such courts for trial. Enlisted persons in the active military service of the Armed Forces of the Philippines or of the Philippine Constabulary shall be competent to serve on general and special courts-martial for the trial of enlisted persons or trainees when requested in writing by the accused at any time prior to the convening of the court; Provided, That the competency of enlisted men to serve shall be subject to the conditions prescribed in this and other articles, and in no case shall the number of enlisted men detailed exceed one-third of the total membership of the court. When appointing courts-martial, the appointing authority shall detail as members thereof those officers of the command and, when eligible and available, those enlisted persons of the command who, in his opinion, are best qualified for the duty by reason of age, training, experience, and judicial temperament; and officers and enlisted persons having less than two years service shall not, if it can be avoided, without manifest injury to the service, be appointed as members of courts-martial in excess of the majority members thereof. No person shall sit as member of a general or special courts-martial when he is the accuser or a witness for the prosecution. [As amended by RAs 242 and 516] Article 5. General Courts-Martial – General Courts-Martial may consist of any number of members not less than five. [As amended by RA 516] Article 6. Special Courts-Martial – Special Courts-martial may consist of any number of members not less than three. [As amended by RA 516] Article 7. Summary Courts-Martial – A Summary Court-martial shall consist of one Officer.

B. By Whom Appointed
Article 8. General Courts-Martial – The President of the Philippines, the Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, the Chief of Constabulary and, when empowered by the President, the commanding officer of a major command or task force, the commanding officer of a division, the commanding officer of a military area, the Superintendent of the Military Academy, the commanding officer of a separate brigade or body of troops may appoint a General Court-Martial; but when any such commander is the accuser or the prosecutor of the person or persons to be tried, the court shall be appointed by a superior competent authority. The authority appointing a General Court-Martial shall detail as one of the members thereof a Member of the Bar, hereafter called Law Member, who shall be an officer of the Judge Advocate General’s Service, or an officer of some other branch of service who is a Member of the Bar and certified by The Judge Advocate General to be qualified for such detail. No General Court-Martial shall receive evidence or vote upon its findings or sentence in the absence of the Law Member regularly detailed. The Law Member, in addition to his duties as a Member, shall perform such other duties as the President may by regulations prescribe. [As amended by RAs 242 and 516] Article 9. Special Courts-Martial – The commanding officer of a major command, task force, military area, or division, and, when empowered by the President, the commanding officer of a garrison, fort, camp, brigade, regiment, detached battalion or squadron, or other detached command or place, zone or commissioned vessel where troops are on duty may appoint special courts-martial, but when any such commanding officer is the accuser or the prosecutor of the person or persons to be tried, the court shall be appointed by superior authority and may in any case be appointed by superior authority when by the latter deemed desirable. [As amended by RAs 242 and 516] Article 10. Summary Courts-Martial – The commanding officer of a garrison, fort, camp, or other place where troops are on duty, and the commanding officer of a regiment, commissioned vessel, detached battalion, detached company, or other detachment may appoint summary courts-martial; but such summary courts-martial may in any case be appointed by superior authority when by the latter deemed desirable; Provided, That when but one officer is present with a command, he shall be the summary court-martial of that command and shall hear and determine cases brought before him. [As amended by RA 516] Article 11. Appointments of Trial Judge Advocates and Counsel – For each general or special court-martial, the authority appointing the court shall appoint a trial judge advocate and a defense counsel, and for each general court-martial, one or more assistant trial judge advocates and one or more assistant defense counsel when necessary; Provided, however, That no officer who has acted as a member, trial judge advocate, assistant trial judge advocate, defense counsel, or assistant defense counsel in any case shall subsequently act as staff judge advocate to the reviewing or confirming authority upon the same case.

C. Jurisdiction
Article 12. General Courts-Martial – General courts-martial shall have the power to try any person subject to military law for any crime or offense made punishable by these articles and any other person who by the law of war is subject to trial buy military tribunals; Provided, That no officer shall be brought to trial before a general court-martial appointed by the Superintendent of the Military Academy; Provided, further, That general courts-martial shall have the power to adjudge any punishment authorized by law or the customs of the service, including a bad-conduct discharge, and that in the Philippine Navy, general courts-martial may impose deprivation of liberty on-shore as a punishment, and in imposing sentence and confinement, may include in the sentence solitary confinement not exceeding thirty days or solitary confinement on diminished rations not exceeding thirty days; And, provided further, That the officer competent to appoint a general court-martial for the trial of any particular case may, when in his judgment the interest of the service shall so require, cause any case to be tried by a special court-martial notwithstanding the limitations upon the jurisdiction of the special court-martial as to offenses set out in article thirteen; but the limitations upon jurisdiction as to persons and upon punishing power set out in said article shall be observed. [As amended by RA 516] Article 13. Special Courts-Martial – Special courts-martial shall have power to try any person subject to military law for any crime or offense not capital made punishable by these articles. Special courts-martial shall not have the power to adjudge dishonorable discharge or dismissal or confinement in excess of six months, not to adjudge forfeiture of more than two-thirds pay per month for a period of not exceeding six months. Subject to approval of the sentence by an officer exercising general court-martial jurisdiction and subject to appellate review by the Judge Advocate General, a special court-martial may adjudge a bad-conduct discharge in addition to any other authorized punishment; Provided, That a bad-conduct discharge shall not be adjudged by a special court-martial unless a complete record of the proceedings and of the testimony admitted by the Court is taken in the case; And provided, further, That in the Philippine Navy, special courts-martial may also impose deprivation of liberty on shore as a punishment and may include in the sentence solitary confinement not exceeding thirty days, or solitary confinement on diminished rations not exceeding thirty days. [As amended by RA 516] Article 14. Summary Courts-Martial – Summary courts-martial shall have power to try any person subject to military law, except an officer, cadet, a flying cadet or probationary second lieutenant, for any crime or offense not capital made punishable by these articles. Provided, That non-commissioned officers shall not, if they object thereto, be brought to trial before a summary court-martial without the authority of the officer competent to bring them to trial before a special court-martial; Provided, further, That the P resident may, by regulations, except from the jurisdiction of summary courts-martial any class or classes of persons subject to military law. Summary courts-martial shall not have the power to adjudge confinement in excess of one month, restriction to limits for more than three months or forfeiture or detention of more than two thirds of one month’s pay; Provided, That in the Philippine Navy, summary courts-martial may also impose deprivation of liberty on shore as a punishment, and in imposing a sentence confinement, may include in the sentence solitary confinement not exceeding fifteen days, or solitary confinement on diminished rations not exceeding fifteen days. [As amended by RAs 242 and 516] Article 15. Jurisdiction not exclusive – The provisions of these articles conferring jurisdiction upon courts-martial shall not be construed as depriving other military tribunals of concurrent jurisdiction in respect of offenders or offenses that by statute or by the law of war may be triable by such military tribunals. Article 16. Persons in the Military Service; How Triable – Officers shall be triable by general and special courts-martial, and in no case shall an officer, when it can be avoided, be tried by officers inferior to him in rank. No enlisted person may sit as a member of a court-martial for the trial of another enlisted person or trainee who is assigned to the same company. [As amended by RA 516]

D. Procedure
Article 17. Trial Judge Advocate to Prosecute; Counsel to Defend – The trial judge advocate shall prosecute in the name of the People of the Philippines and shall, under the direction of the court, prepare the record its of its proceedings. The accused shall have the right to be represented in his defense before the court by counsel of his own selection, civil counsel if he so provides, or military, if such counsel be reasonably available, otherwise by the defense counsel duly appointed by the court pursuant to article eleven. Should the accused have counsel of his own selection¸ the defense counsel and assistant defense counsel shall, if the accused so desires, act as his associate counsel. Article 18. Challenges – Members of general or special courts-martial may be challenged by the accused or the trial judge advocate for cause stated to the court. The court shall determine the relevancy and validity thereof, and shall not receive a challenge to more than one member at a time. Challenges by the trial judge advocate shall ordinarily be presented and decided before those by the accused are offered. Each side shall be entitled to one peremptory challenge, but the law member of the court shall not be challenged except for cause. [As amended by RA 242] Article 19. Oaths – The trial judge advocate of a general or special court-martial shall administer to the members of the court, before they proceed upon any trial, the following oath or affirmation: “You, A. B., do swear (or affirm) that you will well and truly try and determine, according to the evidence, the matter now before you, between the People of the Philippines and the person to be tried, and that you will duly administer justice, without partiality, favor, or affection, according to the provisions of the rules and articles for the government of the Armed Forces of the Philippines and of the Philippine Constabulary, and if any doubt should arise, not explained by said rules and articles, then according to your conscience, the best of your understanding and the custom of war in like cases, and you do further swear (or affirm) that you will not divulge the findings or sentence of the court until they shall be published by the proper authority or duly announced by the court, except to the trial judge advocate and assistant trial judge advocate; neither will you disclose or discover the vote or opinion of any particular member of the court-martial upon a challenge or upon the findings or sentence, unless required to give evidence thereof as a witness by a court of justice in due course of law. So help you God.” When the oath or affirmation has been administered to the members of a general or special court-martial, the president of the court shall administer to the trial judge advocate and to each assistant trial judge advocate, if any, an oath or affirmation in the following form: “You , A .B., do swear (or affirm) that you will well and faithfully and impartially perform the duties of a trial judge advocate, and will not divulge the findings or sentence of the court to any but the proper authority until they shall be duly disclosed. So help you God.: All persons who give evidence before a court-martial shall be examined on oath or affirmation in the following form: You swear (or affirm) that the evidence you shall give in the case now in hearing shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth. So help you God.: Every reporter of the proceedings of a court-martial shall, before entering upon his duties, take an oath or affirmation in the following form: “You swear (or affirm) that you will truly interpret in the case now in hearing. So help you God.” In case of affirmation, the closing sentence of adjuration will be omitted. [As amended by RA 242] Article 20. Continuances – A court-martial may, for reasonable cause, grant a continuance to either party for such time and as often as may appear to be just. Article 21. Refusal or Failure to Plead – When an accused arraigned before a court-martial rails or refuses to plead, or answers foreign to the purpose, or after a plea of guilty makes a statement inconsistent with the plea, or when it appears to be court that he entered a plea of guilty improvidently or through lack of understanding of its meaning and effect, the court shall proceed to trial and judgment as if he had pleaded not guilty. Article 22. Process to Obtain Witnesses – Every trial judge advocate of a general or special court-martial and every summary court-martial shall have power to issue the like process to compel witnesses to appear and testify which courts of the Philippines having criminal jurisdiction may lawfully issue. Article 23. Refusal to Appear or Testify – Every person not subject to military law who, being duly subpoenaed to appear as a witness before any military court, commission, court of inquiry, or board, or officer appointed to conduct an investigation under the provisions of article seventy-one, or before any officer, military or civil, designated to take a deposition to be read in evidence before such court, commission, court of inquiry, or board, willfully neglects or refuses to appear, or refuses to qualify as a witness, or testify, or produce documentary evidence which such person may have been legally subpoenaed to produce, shall be deemed guilty of contempt, for which such person shall be punished on information in the Court of First Instance of the province or city where the subpoena is issued, jurisdiction being hereby conferred upon such courts for such purpose, and it shall be the duty of the City Fiscal or City Attorney or Provincial Fiscal, on the certification of the facts to him by the military court, commission, court of inquiry, or board, or officer appointed to conduct investigation under the provisions of article seventy-one, to file an information against and prosecute the person so offending in the manner provided in Sections Four and Five, Rule Sixty-Four of the Rules of Court, and the punishment of such person, on conviction, shall be that provided in Sections Six and Seven of the aforesaid Rule Sixty-Four; Provided, That such fees as the Chief of Staff may prescribe, and traveling expenses in the amount of ten centavos per kilometer of travel, shall be duly paid or tendered to witnesses, such amounts to be paid out of the appropriations of the Armed Forces of the Philippines or Philippine Constabulary. [As amended by RA 242] Article 24. Compulsory Self-incrimination Prohibited – No witness before a military court, commission, court of inquiry, or board, or before any officer conducting investigation, or before any officer, military or civil, designated to take a deposition to be read in evidence before a military court, commission, court of inquiry, or board, or before an officer conducting an investigation, shall be compelled to incriminate himself, or to answer any question not material to the issue, when such answer might tend to degrade him. Article 25. Depositions – When Admissible – A duly authenticated deposition taken upon reasonable notice to the opposite party may be read in evidence before any military court or commission in any case not capital, or in any proceeding before a court of inquiry or a military board, if such deposition be taken where the witness resides, is found, or is about to go outside of the Philippines, or beyond the distance of one hundred and fifty kilometers from the place of trial or hearing, and will probably continue absent when the testimony is required, or when it appears to the satisfaction of the court, commission, board, or appointing authority that the witness, by reason of age, sickness, bodily infirmity, imprisonment, or other reasonable cause, is unable to appear and testify in person at the place of trial or hearing; Provided, That testimony by deposition may be adduced for the defense in capital cases. Article 26. Depositions – Before Whom Taken – Depositions to be read in evidence before military courts, courts of inquiry, or military boards, or for other use in military administration, may be taken before and authenticated by any officer, military or civil, authorized by the laws of the Philippines or by the laws of the place where the deposition is taken to administer oaths. Article 27. Courts of Inquiry – Records of, When Admissible – The records of the proceedings of a court of inquiry may, with the consent of the accused, be read in evidence before any court-martial or military commission in any case not capital nor extending to the dismissal of the officer, and may also be read in evidence in any proceedings before a court of inquiry or military board; Provided, That such evidence may be adduced by the defense in capital cases or cases extending to the dismissal of an officer. Article 28. Court to Announce Action – Whenever the court has acquitted the accused upon all the specifications and charges, the court shall at once announce such result in open court. Under such regulations as the president may prescribe, the findings and sentence in other cases may be similarly announced. Article 29. Closed Sessions – Whenever a general or special court-martial shall sit in closed session, the trial judge advocate and the assistant trial judge advocate, if any, shall withdraw; and when their assistance in referring to the recorded evidence is required, it shall be obtained in open court, and in the presence of the accused and of his counsel, if any. Article 30. Method of Voting – Voting by members of a general or special court-martial upon questions of challenge, on the findings, and on the sentence shall be by secret written ballot. The junior member of the court shall in each case count the votes, which count shall be checked by the president, who shall forthwith announce the result of the ballot to the members of the court. The law member of a general court-martial, or the president of a special court martial shall rule in open court upon interlocutory questions other than challenge arising during the proceedings; Provided, That if any member objects to a ruling of the law member of a general court-martial upon a motion for a finding of not guilty or on the question of the accused’s sanity, or if any member objects to any ruling of the president of a special court-martial as herein above provided, the court shall be cleared and closed, and the question decided by a majority vote, viva voce, beginning with the junior in rank. A ruling made by the law member of a general court-martial upon any interlocutory question other than a motion for a finding of not guilty, or the accused’s sanity, shall be final and shall constitute the ruling of the court; but the law member in any case may consult with the court, in closed session, before making a ruling, and may change any ruling made at any time during the trial. It shall be the duty of the law member of a general court-martial or the president of a special court-martial, before a vote is taken, to advise the court that the accused must be presumed innocent until his guilt is established be legal and competent evidence beyond a reasonable doubt, and that in the case being considered, if there is a reasonable doubt as the guilt of the accused, the doubt shall be resolved in the accused’s favor and he shall be acquitted; if there is a reasonable doubt as to the degree of guilt, the finding must be in the lower degree as to which there is no such doubt; that the burden of proof to establish the guilt of the accused is upon the government. [As amended by RA 516] Article 31. Contempts – A military tribunal may punish any person who commits direct contempt as defined in the Rules of Court; Provided, That such punishment shall in no case exceed ten days confinement, or a fine not exceeding two hundred pesos, or both. [As amended by RA 242] Article 32. Records – General Courts-Martial – Each general court-martial shall keep a separate record of its proceedings in the trial of each case brought before it, and such record shall be authenticated by the signature of the president and the trial judge advocate; but in case the record cannot be authenticated by the president and the trial judge advocate, by reason of the death, disability, or absence of either or both of them, it shall be signed by a member in lieu of the president and by an assistant trial judge advocate, if there be one, in lieu of the trial judge advocate; otherwise, by another member of the court. Article 33. Records – Special and Summary Courts-Martial – Each special court-martial and each summary court-martial shall keep a record of its proceedings, separate for each case, which record shall contain such matter and be authenticated in such manner as may be required by regulations which the President may from time to time prescribe. Article 34. Disposition of Records – General and Special Courts-Martial – The trial judge advocate of each general or special court-martial shall, with such expedition as circumstances may permit, forward to the appointing authority or to his successor in command the original record of the proceedings of such court in the trial of each case. All records of such proceedings shall, after having been acted upon, be transferred to the Judge Advocate General of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. [As amended by RA 242] Article 35. Disposition of Records – Summary Courts-Martial – After having been acted upon by the officer appointing the court, or by the officer commanding for the time being, a report of each trial by summary court-martial shall be transmitted to such general headquarters as the President may designate in regulations, there to be filed in the office of the judge advocate. When no longer of use, the records of summary courts-martial may be destroyed. Article 36. Irregularities – Effect of – The proceedings of a court-martial shall no be held invalid, nor the findings or sentence disapproved in any case on the ground of improper admission or rejection of evidence, or for any error as to any matter of pleading or procedure, unless in the opinion of the reviewing or confirming authority, after an examination of the entire proceedings, it shall appear that the error complained of has injuriously affected the substantial rights of an accused; Provided, That the act or omission upon which the accused has been tried constitutes an offense denounced and made punishable be one or more of these articles; Provided, further, That the omission of the words “hard labor” in any sentence of any court-martial adjudging imprisonment or confinement shall not be construed as depriving the authorities executing such sentence of imprisonment or confinement of the power to require hard labor as a part of the punishment in any case where it is authorized by the Executive Order prescribing maximum punishments. Article 37. President may prescribe rules – The President may, by regulations, which he may modify from time to time, prescribe the procedure, including modes of proof, in cases before courts-martial, courts, of inquiry, military commissions, and other military tribunals, which regulations shall, in so far as he shall deem practicable, apply the rules of evidence generally recognized in the trial of criminal cases in the courts of justice of the Philippines; Provided, That nothing contrary to or inconsistent with these articles shall be so prescribed.

E. Limitations Upon Prosecutions[1]

Article 38. As to time[2] – Except for desertion, murder or rape committed in time of war, or for mutiny or for war offenses, no person subject to military law shall be liable to be tried or punished by a court-martial for any crime or offense committed more than two years before the arraignment of such person; Provided, That for desertion in time of peace or for any crime or offense punishable under articles ninety-four and ninety-five of these articles, the period of limitations upon trial and punishment by courts-martial shall be three years from the time the offense was committed; Provided, further, That the period of any absence of the accused from the jurisdiction of the Philippines, and also any period during which, by reason of some manifest impediment the accused shall not have been amenable to military justice, shall be excluded in computing the aforesaid periods of limitations; And provided, also, That in any case of any offense the trial of which in time of war shall be certified by the Secretary of National Defense to be detrimental to the prosecution of the war or inimical to the nation’s security, the periods of limitations herein provided for the trial of the said offense shall be extended to the duration of the war and six months thereafter; Provided, finally, That this article shall not have the effect to authorize the trial or punishment for any crime or offense barred by the provisions of existing law. [As amended by RAs 242 and 516] Article 39. As to Number – No person shall, without his consent, be tried a second time for the same offense; but no proceeding in which an accused has been found guilty by a court martial upon any charge or specification shall be held to be a trial in the sense of this article until the reviewing and, if there be one, the confirming authority shall have taken final action upon the case. No authority shall return a record of trial to any court-martial for reconsideration of:

An acquittal; or
A finding of not guilty of any specification; or
A finding of not guilty of any charge, unless the record shows a finding of guilty under a specification laid under the charge, which sufficiently alleges a violation of some Article of War; or
The sentence originally imposed, with a view to increasing its severity, unless such sentence is less than the mandatory sentence fixed by law for the offense or offenses upon which a conviction has been had.

And no court-martial in any proceedings on revision, shall reconsider its findings or sentence in any particular in which a return of the record of trial for such reconsideration is herein before prohibited.

F. Punishments
Article 40. Cruel and Unusual Punishments Prohibited – Cruel and unusual punishments of every kind are prohibited. Article 41. Places of confinement – When Lawful – Except for desertion in time of war, repeated desertion in time of peace, and mutiny, no person shall, under the sentence of a court-martial, be punished by confinement in a penitentiary unless an act or omission of which he is convicted is recognized as an offense of a civil nature and so punishable by penitentiary confinement for more than one year by some statute of the Philippines, or by way of commutation of a death sentence, and unless, also, the period of confinement authorized and adjudged by such court-martial is more than one year; Provided, That when a sentence of confinement is adjudged by a court-martial upon conviction of two or more acts or omissions, any one of which is punishable under these articles by confinement by confinement in a penitentiary, the entire sentence of confinement may be executed in a penitentiary; Provided, further, That penitentiary hereby authorized may be served in any penitentiary under the jurisdiction of the Philippines; Provided, furthermore, That persons sentenced to dishonorable discharge and to confinement, not in a penitentiary, shall be confined in disciplinary barracks or elsewhere as the President or the reviewing authority may direct, but not a penitentiary. Article 42. Death Sentence, When Lawful – No person shall, by general court-martial, be convicted of an offense for which the death penalty is made mandatory by law, nor sentenced to suffer death, except by the concurrence of all the members of said court-martial present at the time the vote is taken, and for an offense in these articles expressly made punishable by death; nor sentenced to life imprisonment, nor to confinement for more than ten years, except by the concurrence of three-fourths of all the members present at the time the vote is taken. All other convictions and sentences, whether by general or special court-martial, may be determined by a two-thirds vote of those members present at the time the vote is taken. All other questions shall be determined by majority vote. Article 43. Cowardice, Fraud – Accessory Penalty – When an officer is dismissed from the service for cowardice or fraud, the crime, punishment, name, and place of abode of the delinquent shall be published in the newspapers in and about the camp and in the province or city from which the offender came or where he usually resides; and after such publication, it shall be scandalous for an officer to associate with him.] Repealed by RA 516. Article 44. Maximum Limits – Whenever the punishment for a crime or offense made punishable by these articles is left to the discretion of the court-martial, the punishment shall not exceed such limits as the President may from time to time prescribe; Provided, That in time of peace the period of confinement in a penitentiary shall in no case exceed the maximum period prescribed by law which, under article forty-one of these articles, permits confinement in a penitentiary, unless in addition to the offense so punishable under such law, the accused shall have been convicted at the same time of one or more other offenses.

G. Action by Appointing or Superior Authority
Article 45. Action by Convening Authority – Under such regulations as may be prescribed by the President, every record of trial by general court-martial or military commission, or record of trial by special courts-martial in which a bad-conduct discharge has been adjudged and approved by the authority appointing the court, received by a reviewing or confirming authority, shall be referred by him, before he acts thereon, to his staff judge advocate or to the Judge Advocate General. No sentence of a court-martial shall be carried into execution until the same shall have been approved by the officer appointing the court or by the officer commanding for the time being; Provided, That no sentence of a special court-martial which includes a bad-conduct discharge shall be carried into execution until, in addition to the approval by the convening authority, the same shall have been approved by an officer authorized to appoint a general court-martial. [As amended by RA 516] Article 46. Powers Incident to Power to Approve – The power to approve the sentence of a court-martial shall be held to include:

The power to approve or disapprove a finding and to approve only so much of a finding of guilty of a particular offense as involves a finding of guilty of a lesser included offense, when, in the opinion of the authority having power to approve, the evidence of record requires a finding of only the lesser degree of guilt; and
The power to approve or disapprove the whole or any part of the sentence; and
The power to remand a case for rehearing, under the provisions of article fifty.

Article 47. Confirmation – In addition to the approval required by article forty-five, conformation by the President is required in the following cases before the sentence of a court-martial is carried into execution, namely:

Any sentence respecting a general officer;
Any sentence extending to the dismissal of an officer, except that in time of war a sentence extending to the dismissal of an officer below the grade of brigadier general may be carried into execution upon confirmation by the commanding general of the Army in the field;
Any sentence extending to the suspension or dismissal of a cadet, flying cadet, probationary second lieutenant; and
Any sentence of death, except in the cases of persons convicted in time of war, of murder, mutiny, desertion, or as spies; and in such excepted cases, a sentence of death may be carried into execution subject to the provisions of article fifty, upon confirmation by the commanding general of the Army in the field.

When the authority competent to confirm the sentence has already acted as the approving authority, no additional confirmation by him is necessary. [As amended by RA 242] Article 48. Power Incident to Power to Confirm – The power to confirm the sentence of a court-martial shall be held to include:

The power to confirm or disapprove a finding, and to confirm so much only of a finding of guilty of a particular offense as involves a finding of guilty of a lesser included offense when, in the opinion of the authority having the power to confirm, the evidence of record requires a finding of only the lesser degree of guilt;
The power to confirm or disapprove the whole or any part of the sentence; and
The power to remand a case for rehearing under the provisions of article fifty.

Article 49. Mitigation or Remission of Sentence – The power to order the execution of the sentence adjudged by a court-martial shall be held to include, inter alia, the power to mitigate or remit the whole or any part of the sentence. Any unexecuted portion of a sentence adjudged by a court-martial may be mitigated or remitted by the military authority competent to appoint, for the command, exclusive of penitentiaries and Disciplinary Barracks of the Armed Forces of the Philippines or Philippine Constabulary, in which the person under sentence is held, a court of the kind that imposed the sentence, and the same power may be exercised by superior military authority; but no sentence approved or confirmed by the President shall be remitted or mitigated by any other authority, and no approved sentence of loss of files by an officer shall be remitted or mitigated by any authority inferior to the President, except as provided in article fifty-two. When empowered by the President to do so, the commanding officer of the Army in the field or the area commander may approve or confirm and commute (but not approve or confirm without commuting), mitigate, or remit and then order executed as commuted, mitigated, or remitted any sentence which under these articles requires the confirmation of the President before the same may be executed. [As amended by RA 242] Article 50. Appellate Review – The Judge Advocate General of the Armed Forces of the Philippines shall constitute in his office, a board of review consisting of one or more officers of the Judge Advocate General’s Service. Before any record of trial in which there has been adjudged a sentence requiring approval or confirmation by the President, under the provisions of article forty-seven or article fifty-one, is submitted to the President, such record shall be examined by the board of review. The board shall submit its opinion in writing to the Judge Advocate General, who shall, except as herein otherwise provided, transmit the record and the board’s opinion, with his recommendations, to the Chief of Staff for the action of the President. No authority shall order the execution of any other sentence of a court-martial involving the penalty of death, dismissal not suspended, dishonorable discharge not suspended, bad conduct discharge not suspended, or confinement in a penitentiary, unless and until the board of review shall, with the approval of the Judge Advocate General, have held the record of trial upon which such sentence is based legally sufficient to support the sentence; except that the proper reviewing authority or confirming authority may, upon his approval of a sentence involving dishonorable discharge, bad conduct discharge or confinement in a penitentiary, order its execution if it is based solely upon findings of guilty of a charge or charges and a specification or specifications to which the accused has pleaded guilty. When the board of review, with the approval of the Judge Advocate General, holds the record in a case in which the order of execution has been withheld under the provisions of this paragraph legally sufficient to support the findings and sentence, the Judge Advocate General shall so advise the reviewing or confirming authority from whom the record was received, who may thereupon order the execution of the sentence. When in a case in which the order of execution was withheld under the provisions of this paragraph, the board of review holds the record of trial legally insufficient to support the findings or sentence, either in whole or in part, or that errors of law have been committed injuriously affecting the substantial rights of the accused, and the Judge Advocate General concurs in such holding of the board of review, such findings and sentence shall be vacated in whole or in part in accord with such holding and the record shall be transmitted through the proper channels to the convening authority for a rehearing or such other action as may be proper. In the event that the Judge Advocate General shall not concur in the holding of the board of review, the Judge Advocate General shall forward the papers of the case, including the opinion of the board of review and his dissent therefrom, directly to the Chief of Staff for the action of the President, who may confirm the action of the reviewing authority or confirming authority below, in whole or in part, with or without remission, mitigation, or commutation, or may disapprove, in whole or in part, any finding of guilty, and may approve or vacate the sentence, in whole or in part. Every record of trial by general court-martial, examination of which by the board of review is not hereinbefore in this article provided for, shall nevertheless be examined in the Judge Advocate General’s Office; and if found legally insufficient to support the findings and sentence, in whole or in part, shall be examined by the board of review, and the board, if it also finds that such record is legally insufficient to support the findings and sentence, in whole or in part, shall, in writing, submit its opinion to the Judge Advocate General, who shall transmit the record and the board’s opinion, with his recommendation, to the Chief of Staff for the action of the President. In any such case the President may approve, disapprove, or vacate in whole or in part, any findings of guilty, or confirm, mitigate, commute, remit or vacate any sentence, in whole or in part, and direct the execution of the sentence as confirmed or modified, and he may restore the accused to all rights affected by the findings and sentence or part thereof held to be invalid; and the President’s necessary orders to this end shall be binding upon all departments and officers of the Government. Whenever necessary, the Judge Advocate General may constitute two or more boards of review in his office, with equal powers and duties. The President is hereby empowered to establish a system of review, separate from that prescribed in this article, for cases wherein the accused is a member of the Philippine Constabulary; Provided, That until the President directs otherwise, the records of trial in such cases shall remain subject to the requirements and procedure fixed by this article. [As amended by RAs 242 and 516] Article 50-A. Rehearing – When the President or any reviewing or confirming authority disapproves or vacates a sentence the execution of which has not heretofore been duly ordered, he may authorize or direct a rehearing. Such rehearing shall take place before a court composed of officers, or officers and enlisted personnel, not members of the court which first heard the case. Upon such rehearing the accused shall not be tried for any offense of which he was not found guilty by the first court, and no sentence in excess of or more severe than the original sentence shall be imposed unless the sentence be based upon a finding of guilty of an offense not considered upon the merits in the original proceedings; Provided, That such rehearing shall be had in all cases where a finding and sentence have been vacated by reason of the action of the board of review approved by the Judge Advocate General holding the record of trial, legally insufficient to support the findings or sentence, or errors of law have been committed injuriously affecting the substantial rights of the accused unless in accord with such action, and the recommendations of the Judge Advocate General thereon, the findings or sentence approved in part only, or the record is returned or revision, or unless the case is dismissed by order of the reviewing or confirming authority. After any such rehearing had on the order of the President, the record of trial shall, after examination by the board of review, be transmitted by the Judge Advocate General, with the board’s opinion and his recommendations to the Chief of Staff for the action of the President. [As inserted by RA 516] Article 50-B. Petition for New Trial – Under such regulations as the President may prescribe, the Chief of Staff or the Chief of Constabulary is authorized upon application of an accused person, and upon good cause shown, in his discretion, to grant a new trial, or to vacate a sentence, restore rights, privileges, and property affected by such sentence, and substitute for a dismissal, dishonorable discharge, or bad-conduct discharge previously executed, a form of discharge authorized for administrative issuance, in any court-martial case in which application is made within one year after final disposition of the case upon initial appellate review; Provided, That with regard to cases involving offenses committed prior to World War II, the application for new trial may be made within one year after termination of the war, or after its final disposition upon initial appellate review as herein provided, whichever is the later; Provided, That only one such application for a new trial may be entertained with regard to any one case; And, provided further, That all action by the Chief of Staff or the Chief of Constabulary pursuant to this article, and all proceedings, findings and sentences on new trials under this article, as approved, reviewed, or confirmed under articles forty-five, forty-six, forty-seven, forty-eight and fifty, and all dismissals and discharges carried into execution pursuant to sentences adjudged on new trial and approved, reviewed, or confirmed, shall be final and conclusive; and orders publishing the action of the Chief of Staff or the Chief of Constabulary or the proceedings on new trial, and all action taken pursuant to such proceedings, shall be binding upon all departments, courts, agencies and officers of the Government of the Philippines. [As inserted by RA 516] Article 51. Suspension of Sentence of Dismissal or Death – The authority competent to order the execution of a sentence of dismissal of an officer or a sentence of death may suspend such sentence until the pleasure of the President be known, and in case of such suspension, a copy of the order of suspension, together with a copy of the record of trial, shall immediately be transmitted to the President. Article 52. Suspension of Sentence – The authority competent to order the execution of a sentence of a court-martial may, at the time of the approval of such sentence, or at any time thereafter, while the sentence is being served, suspend the execution, in whole or in part, of any such sentence as does not extend to death, and may restore the person under sentence to duty during such suspension. A sentence, or any part thereof, which has been so suspended may be remitted, in whole or in part, by the officer who suspended the same, except in cases of persons confined in penitentiaries, by his successor in office, or by any officer exercising appropriate court-martial jurisdiction over the command which the person under sentence may be serving at the time, and, subject to the foregoing exceptions, the same authority may vacate the order of suspension at any time and order the execution of a sentence or the suspended part thereof, insofar s the same shall not have been previously remitted, subject to like power of suspension. The death or honorable discharge of a person under a suspended sentence shall operate as a complete remission of any unexecuted or unremitted part of such sentence; Provided, That no sentence approved or confirmed by the President shall be remitted by any other authority. [As amended by RA 516] Article 53. Execution of Remission – Confinement in Penitentiaries – When a sentence of dishonorable dismissal has been suspended until the soldier’s release from confinement, the execution or remission of any part of his sentence shall, if the soldier be confined in the penitentiaries, or any branch thereof, be directed by the President.

TITLE III – PUNITIVE ARTICLES

A. Enlistment, Muster, Returns
Article 54. Fraudulent Enlistment – Any person who shall procure himself to be enlisted in the military service of the Philippines or in the Philippine Constabulary by means of willful misrepresentation or concealment as to his qualifications for enlistment, and shall receive pay or allowance under such enlistment, shall be punished as a court-martial may direct. [As amended by RA 242] Article 55. Officer Making Unlawful Enlistment – Any officer who knowingly enlists or musters into the military service or in the Philippine Constabulary any person whose enlistment or muster is prohibited by law, regulations or orders shall be dismissed from the service or suffer such other punishment as a court-martial may direct. [As amended by RA 242] Article 56. False Muster – Any officer who makes a false muster of a man or animal, or who signs or directs or allow the signing of any muster roll knowing the same to contain a false muster or false statement s to the absence or pay of an officer or soldier, or who wrongfully takes money or other consideration on mustering in a regiment, company, or other organization, or on signing muster rolls, or who knowingly musters as an officer or soldier a person who is not such officer or soldier, shall be dismissed from the service and suffer such other punishment as a court-martial may direct. Article 57. False Returns – Omission to Render Returns – Every officer whose duty it is to render to Headquarters, Armed Forces of the Philippines or the Philippine Constabulary or other superior authority a return of the state of the troops under his command, or of the arms, ammunition, clothing, funds, or other property thereunto belonging, who knowingly makes an false return thereof, shall be dismissed from the service and suffer such other punishment as a court-martial may direct. Any officer who, through neglect or design, omits to render such return shall be punished as a court-martial may direct. [As amended by RA 242]

B. Desertion, Absence Without Leave
Article 58. Certain Acts to Constitute Desertion – Any officer who, having tendered his resignation and prior to due notice of the acceptance of the same, quits his post or proper duties without leave and with intent to absent himself permanently therefrom shall be deemed a deserter. Any soldier who, without having first received a regular discharge, again enlisted in the Armed Forces of the Philippines or Philippine Constabulary or in the armed forces of any foreign country shall be deemed to have deserted the service of the Philippines and where the enlistment is in the Armed Forces of the Philippines or the Philippine Constabulary, to have fraudulently enlisted therein. Any person subject to military law who quits his organization or place of duty with the intent to avoid hazardous duty or to shirk important service shall be deemed a deserter. [As amended by RA 242] Article 59. Desertion – Any person subject to military law who deserts or attempts to desert the service of the Armed Forces of the Philippines or Philippine Constabulary shall, if the offense be committed in time of war, suffer death of such other punishment as a court-martial may direct, and of the offense be committed at any other time, any punishment, excepting death, that a court-martial may direct. [As amended by RA 242] Article 60. Advising or Aiding Another to Desert – Any person subject to military law who advises or persuades another to desert the service of the Armed Forces of the Philippines or the Philippine Constabulary shall, if the offense be committed in time of war, suffer death or such other punishment as a court-martial may direct, and if the offense be committed at any other time, any punishment, excepting death, that a court-martial may direct. [As amended by RA 242] Article 61. Entertaining a Deserter – Any officer who, after having discovered that a soldier in his command is a deserter from the military service or the Philippine Constabulary, retains such deserter in his command without informing superior authority or the commander of the organization to which he belongs, shall be punished as a court-martial may direct. [As amended by RA 242] Article 62. Absence Without Leave – Any person subject to military law who fails to repair at the fixed time to the properly appointed place of duty, or goes from the same without proper leave, or absents himself from his command, guard, quarters, station, or camp without proper leave, shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

C. Disrespect, Insubordination, Mutiny
Article 63. Disrespect Toward the President, Vice President, Congress of the Philippines, or Secretary of National Defense – Any officer who uses contemptuous or disrespectful words against the President, Vice President, Congress of the Philippines, or Secretary of National Defense, shall be dismissed from the service or suffer such other punishment as a court-martial may direct. Any other person subject to military law who so offends shall be punished as a court-martial may direct. [As amended by RA 242] Article 64. Disrespect Toward Superior Officer – Any person subject to military law who behaves himself with disrespect toward his superior officer shall be punished as a court-martial may direct. Article 65. Assaulting or Willfully Disobeying Superior Officer – Any person subject to military law who, on any pretext whatsoever, strikes his superior officer or draws or lifts up any weapon, or offers any violence against him, being in the exercise of his office, or willfully disobeys any lawful command of his superior officer, shall suffer death or such other punishment as a court-martial may direct. Article 66. Insubordinate Conduct Toward Non-Commissioned Officer – Any soldier who strikes or assaults, or who attempts or threatens to strike or assault, or willfully disobeys the lawful order of a non-commissioned officer while in the execution of his officer, or uses threatening or insulting language, or behaves in an insubordinate or disrespectful manner toward a non-commissioned officer while in the execution of his office, shall be punished as a court-martial may direct. Article 67. Mutiny or Sedition – Any person subject to military law who attempts to create or who begins, excites, causes, or joins in any mutiny or sedition in any company, party, post, camp, detachment, guard, or other command shall suffer death or such other punishment as a court-martial may direct. Article 68. Failure to Suppress Mutiny or Sedition – Any officer or soldier who, being present at any mutiny or sedition, does not use his utmost endeavor to suppress the same, or knowing or having reason to believe that a mutiny or sedition is to take place, does not without delay give information thereof to his commanding officer, shall suffer death or such other punishment as a court-martial may direct. Article 69. Quarrels; Frays; Disorders – All officers and non-commissioned officers have power to part and quell quarrels, frays and disorders among persons subject to military law and to order officers who take part in the same into arrest, and other persons subject to military law who take part in the same into arrest or confinement, as circumstances may require, until their proper superior office is acquainted therewith. And whoever, being so ordered, refuses to obey such officer, or draws a weapon upon or otherwise threatens or does violence to him, shall be punished as a court-martial may direct. [As amended by RA 516]

D. Arrest; Confinement
Article 70. Arrest and Confinement – Any person subject to military law charged with a crime or with a serious offense under these articles shall be placed in confinement or in arrest, as circumstances may require; but when charged with a minor offense only, such person shall not ordinarily be placed in confinement. Any person placed in arrest under the provisions of this article shall thereby be restricted to barracks, quarters, or tent, unless such limits are enlarged by proper authority. Any officer or cadet who breaks his arrest or who escapes from confinement, whether before or after trial or sentence and before he is set at liberty by proper authority, shall be dismissed from the service or suffer such other punishment as a court-martial may direct; and any other person subject to military law who escapes from confinement or who breaks his arrest, whether before or after trial or sentence and before he is set at liberty by proper authority, shall be punished as a court-martial may direct. Article 71. Charges; Action Upon – Charges and specifications must be signed by a person subject to military law and under oath that he has personal knowledge of, or has investigated the matters set forth therein, and that the same are true in fact, to the best of his knowledge and belief. No charge will be referred to a general court-martial for trial until a thorough and impartial investigation thereof shall have been made. This investigation will include inquiries as to the truth of the matter set forth in said charges, form of charges, and what disposition of the case should be made in the interest of justice and discipline. At such investigation full opportunity shall be given to the accused to cross-examine witnesses against him, if they are available, and to present anything he may desire in his own behalf, either in defense or mitigation, and the investigating officer shall examine available witnesses requested by the accused. If the charges are forwarded after such investigation, they shall be accompanied by a statement of the substance of the testimony taken on both sides. Before directing the trial of any charge be general court-martial, the appointing authority will refer it to his staff judge advocate for consideration and advice. When any person subject to military law is placed in arrest or confinement, immediate steps will be taken to try the person accused or to dismiss the charge and release him. Any officer who is responsible for unnecessary delay in investigating or carrying a case to a final conclusion shall be punished as a court-martial may direct. When a person is held for trial by general court-martial, the commanding officer shall, within eight days after the accused is arrested or confined, if practicable, forward the charges to the officer exercising general court-martial jurisdiction and furnish the accused a copy of such charges. If the same be not practicable, he will report to superior authority the reasons for delay. The trial judge advocate will cause to be served upon the accused a copy of the charges upon which trial is to be had, and failure so to serve such charges will be ground for a continuance, unless the trial be had on the charges furnished the accused as hereinbefore provided. In time of peace no person shall, against his objection, be brought to trial before a general court-martial within a period of five days subsequent to the service of charges upon him. [As amended by RA 242] Article 72. Refusal to Receive and Keep Prisoners – No provost marshal or commander of a guard shall refuse to receive or keep a prisoner committed to his charge by an officer belonging to the Armed Forces of the Philippines or the Philippine Constabulary, provided the officer committing shall, at the time, deliver an account in writing, signed by himself, of the crime or offense charged against the prisoner. Any officer or soldier so refusing shall be punished as a court-martial may direct. [As amended by RA 242] Article 73. Report of Prisoner Received – Every commander of a guard to whose charge a prisoner is committed shall, within twenty-four hours after such confinement, or as soon as he is relieved from his guard, report in writing to the commanding officer the name of such prisoner, the offense charged against him, and the name of the officer committing him; and if he fails to make such report, he shall be punished as a court-martial may direct. Article 74. Releasing Prisoner Without Proper Authority – Any person subject to military law who, without proper authorization, releases any prisoner duly committed to his charge, or who, through neglect or design, suffers any prisoner so committed to escape, shall be punished as a court-martial may direct. Article 75. Delivery of Offenders to Civil Authorities – When any person subject to military law, except one who is held by the military authorities to answer, or who is awaiting trial or result of trial, or who is undergoing sentence for a crime or offense punishable under these articles, is accused of a crime or offense committed and punishable by law or by ordinance, the commanding officer is required, except in time of war, upon application duly made, to use his utmost endeavor to deliver over such accused person to the civil authorities, or to aid the officers of justice in apprehending and securing him, in order that he may be brought to trial. Any commanding officer who, upon such application, refuses or willfully neglects, except in time of war, to deliver over such accused person to the civil authorities or to aid officers of justice in apprehending and securing him, shall be dismissed from the service or suffer such other punishment as a court-martial may direct. When, under the provisions of this article, delivery is made to the civil authorities of an offender undergoing sentence of a court-martial, such delivery, if followed by conviction, shall be held to interrupt the execution of the sentence of the court-martial, and the offender shall be returned to military custody after having answered to the civil authorities for his offense, for the completion of the said court-martial sentence.

E. War Offenses
Article 76. Misbehavior Before the Enemy – An officer or soldier who, before the enemy, misbehaves himself, runs away, or shamefully abandons or delivers or by any misconduct, disobedience, or neglect, endangers the safety of any fort, post, camp, guard, or other command which it is his duty to defend, or speaks words inducing others to do the like, or casts away his arms or ammunition, or quits his post or colors to plunder or pillage, or by any means whatsoever occasions false alarms in camp, garrison, or quarters, shall suffer death or such other punishment as a court-martial may direct. Article 77. Subordinates Compelling Commander to Surrender – Any person subject to military law who compels or attempts to compel any commander of any garrison, fort, post, camp, guard, or other command, to give it up to the enemy or to abandon it, shall be punishable with death of such other punishment as a court-martial. Article 78. Improper Use of Countersign – Any person subject to military law who makes known the parole or countersign to any person not entitled to receive it according to the rules o discipline of war, or gives a parole or countersign different from that which he received, shall, if the offense be committed in time of war, or serious disturbance of the peace, suffer death or such other punishment as a court-martial may direct. Article 79. – Forcing a Safeguard – Any person subject to military law who, in time of war, or serious disturbance to the peace, forces a safeguard, shall suffer death or such other punishment as a court-martial may direct. Article 80. Captured Property to be Secured for Public Service – All public property taken from the enemy is the property of the Government of the Republic of the Philippines and shall be secured for the service thereof; and Any person subject to military law who neglects to secure such property or is guilty of wrongful appropriations thereof shall be punished as a court-martial may direct. Article 81. Dealing in Captured or Abandoned Property – Any person subject to military law who buys, sells, trades, or in any way deals in or disposes of captured or abandoned property, whereby he shall receive or expect any profit, benefit or advantage to himself or any other person, directly or indirectly connected with himself, or who fails, whenever such property comes into his possession or custody or within his control, to give notice thereof, be punished by fine or imprisonment, or by such other punishment as a court-martial, military commission, or other military tribunal may adjudge, or by any or all said penalties. Article 82. Relieving, Corresponding With, or Aiding the Enemy – Whosoever relieves or attempts to relieve the enemy with arms, ammunition, supplies, money, or other things, or knowingly harbors or protects or holds correspondence with or gives intelligence to the enemy, either directly or indirectly, shall suffer death or such other punishment as a court-martial or military commission may direct. Article 83. Spies – Any person who, in time of war, is found lurking or acting as a spy in or about any of the fortifications, posts, quarters, or encampments of the Armed Forces of the Philippines or elsewhere, shall be tried by a general court-martial or by a military commission and shall, on conviction thereof, suffer death. [As amended by RA 242]

F. Miscellaneous Crimes and Offenses
Article 84. Military Property, Willful or Negligent Loss, Damage, or Wrongful Disposition – Any person subject to military law who willfully, or through neglect, suffers to be lost, spoiled, damaged, or wrongfully disposed of, any military property belonging to the Philippines, shall make good the loss or damage and suffer such punishment as a court-martial may direct. Article 85. Waste or Unlawful Disposition of Military Property Issued to Soldiers – Any soldier who sells or wrongfully disposes of, or through neglect, injures or loses any horse, arms, ammunition, accouterments, equipment, clothing, or other property issued for use in the military service, shall be punished as a court-martial may direct. Article 86. Drunk on Duty – Any officer who is found drunk on duty shall, if the offense be committed in time of war, be dismissed from the service and suffer such other punishment as a court-martial may direct; and if the offense be committed in time of peace, he shall be punished as a court-martial may direct. Any person subject to military law, except an officer who is found drunk on duty, shall be punished as a court-martial may direct. Article 87. Misbehavior of Sentinel – Any sentinel who is found drunk or sleeping upon his post, or who leaves it before he is regularly relieved, shall, if the offense be committed in time of war, suffer death or such other punishment as a court-martial may direct; and if the offense be committed in time of peace, he shall suffer any punishment, except death, that a court-martial may direct. Article 88. Personal Interest in Sale of Provisions – Any officer commanding in any garrison, fort, barracks, camp, or other place where troops of the Philippines may be serving, who, for his private advantage, lays any duty or imposition upon, or is interested, directly or indirectly, in the sale of any victuals or other necessaries of life brought into such garrison, fort, barracks, camp, or other place for the use of the troops, shall be dismissed from the service and suffer such other punishment as a court-martial may direct. Article 88-A. Unlawfully Influencing Action of the Court– Any authority appointing a general, special, or summary court-martial, or any other commanding officer, who shall censure, reprimand, or admonish such court, or any member thereof, with respect to the findings or sentence adjudged by the court, or with respect to any other exercise by such court or any member thereof, of its or his judicial responsibility, shall be punished as a court-martial may direct. Any person subject to military law who shall attempt to coerce or unlawfully influence the action of a court-martial or any military court or commission, or any member thereof, in reaching the findings or sentence in any case, or the action of an appointing or reviewing or confirming authority, with respect to his judicial act, shall be punished as a court-martial may direct. [As inserted by RA 516] Article 89. Intimidation of Persons Bringing Provisions – Any person subject to military law who abuses, intimidates, does violence to, or wrongfully interferes with any person bringing provisions, supplies, or other necessaries to the camp, garrison, or quarters of the forces of the Philippines, shall suffer such punishment as a court-martial may direct. Article 90. Good Order to be Maintained and Wrongs Redressed – All persons subject to military law are to behave themselves orderly in quarters, garrison, camp and on the march; and Any person subject to military law who commits any waste or spoiling, or willfully destroys any property whatsoever (unless by order of his commanding officer), or commit any kind of depredation or riot, shall be punished as a court-martial may direct. Any commanding officer who, upon complaint made to him, refuses or omits to see reparation made to the party injured, in so far as the offender’s pay shall go toward such reparation as provided for in article 106, shall be dismissed from the service, or otherwise punished as a court-martial may direct. Article 91. Provoking Speeches or Gestures – No person subject to military law shall use any reproachful or provoking speeches or gestures to another, and any person subject to military law who offends against the provision of this article shall be punished as a court-martial may direct. Article 92. Dueling – Any person subject to military law who fights or promotes or is concerned in or connives at fighting a duel, or who, having knowledge of a challenge sent or about to be sent, fails to report the fact promptly to the proper authority, shall, if an officer, be dismissed from the service or suffer such other punishment as a court-martial may direct; and if any other person subject to military law, shall suffer such punishment as a court-martial may direct. Article 93. Murder – Any person subject to military law who commits murder or rape in time of war shall suffer death or imprisonment for life, as a court-martial may direct. Article 94. Various Crimes – Any person subject to military law who commits any felony, crime, breach of law or violation of municipal ordinance which is recognized as an offense of a penal nature and is punishable under the penal laws of the Philippines or under municipal ordinances, (a) inside a reservation of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, or (b) outside any such reservation when the offended party [and each one of the offended parties, if there be more than one] is a subject of military law, shall be punished as a court-martial may direct. In imposing penalties for offenses falling within this article, the penalties for such offenses provided in the penal laws of the Philippines or in such municipal ordinances shall be taken into consideration. [As amended by RA 242 and further amended by PD 1166] Article 95. Frauds Against the Government – Any person subject to military law who makes or causes to be made any claim against the Government or any officer thereof, knowing such claim to be false or fraudulent; or Who presents or causes to be presented to any person in the civil or military service thereof, for approval or payment, any claim against the Government, or any officer thereof, knowing such claim to be false or fraudulent; or Who enters into any agreement or conspiracy to defraud the Government by obtaining, aiding others to obtain the allowance or payment of any false or fraudulent claim; or Who, for the purposes of obtaining, or aiding others to obtain the approval, allowance, or payment of any claim against the Government, or against any officer thereof, makes or uses, procures, or advises the making or use of any writing or other paper, knowing the same to contain any false or fraudulent statements; or Who, for the purpose of obtaining, or aiding others to obtain, the approval, allowance, or payment of any claim against the Government, or any officer thereof, makes or procures, or advises the making of any oath to any fact or to any writing or other paper, knowing such oath to be false; or Who, for the purpose of obtaining, or aiding others to obtain, the approval, allowance, or payment of any claim against the Government, or any officer thereof, forges or counterfeits, or procures, or advises the forging or counterfeiting of any signature upon any writing or other paper, or uses, or procures, or advises the use of any such signature, knowing the same to be forged or counterfeited; or Who, having charge, possession, custody or control of any money or other property of the Government furnished or intended for the military service thereof, knowingly delivers, or causes to be delivered, to any person having authority to receive the same, any amount less than that for which he receives a certificate or receipt; or Who, being authorized to make or deliver any paper certifying the receipt of any property of the Government furnished or intended for the military service thereof, makes or delivers to any person such writing, without having full knowledge of the truth of the statements therein contained and with intent to defraud the Government; or Who steals, embezzles, knowingly and willfully misappropriates, applies to his own use or benefit, or wrongfully or knowingly sells or disposes of any ordnance, arms, equipment, ammunition, clothing, subsistence stores, money, or other property of the Government furnished or intended for the military service thereof; or Who knowingly purchases or receives in pledge for any obligation or indebtedness from any soldier, officer, or other person who is a part of or employed in the Armed Forces of the Philippines or in the Philippine Constabulary, any ordnance, arms, equipment, ammunition, clothing, subsistence stores, or other property of the Government, such soldier, officer, or other person not having lawful right to sell or pledge the same; or Who enters into any agreement or conspires to commit any of the offenses aforesaid; Shall, on conviction thereof, be punished by fine or imprisonment, or by such other punishment as a court-martial may adjudge, or by any or all of said penalties. And if any person, being guilty of any of the offenses aforesaid while in the service of the Armed Forces of the Philippines or of the Philippine Constabulary, receives his discharge or is dismissed from the service, he shall continue to be liable to be arrested and held for trial and sentence as if he had not received such discharge nor been dismissed. And if any officer, being guilty, while in the service of the Armed Forces of the Philippines or of the Philippine Constabulary of embezzlement of ration savings, post exchange, company, or other like funds, or of embezzlement of money or other property entrusted to his charge by an enlisted man or men, receives his discharge, or is dismissed, or is dropped from the rolls, he shall continue to be liable to be arrested and held for trial and sentence by a court-martial in the same manner and to the same extent as if he had not been so discharged, dismissed, or dropped from the rolls. [As amended by RAs 242 and 516] Article 96. Conduct Unbecoming an Officer and Gentleman – Any officer, cadet, flying cadet, or probationary second lieutenant, who is convicted of conduct unbecoming an officer and a gentleman shall be dismissed from the service. [As amended by RAs 242 and 516] Article 97. General Article – Though not mentioned in these articles, all disorders and neglects to the prejudice of good order and military discipline, and all conduct of a nature to bring discredit upon the military service, shall be taken cognizance of by a general or special court-martial according to the nature and degree of the offense, and punished at the discretion of the court.

TITLE IV. COURTS OF INQUIRY
Article 98. When and by Whom Ordered – A court of inquiry to examine into the nature of any transaction of or accusation or imputation against any officer or soldier may be ordered by the President, the Chief of Staff, or by any commanding officer; but a court of inquiry shall not be ordered by any commanding officer except upon the request of the officer or soldier whose conduct is to be inquired into. Article 99. Composition – A court of inquiry shall consist of three or more officers. For each court of inquiry the authority appointing the court shall appoint a recorder. Article 100. Challenges – Members of a court of inquiry may be challenged by the party whose conduct is to be inquired into, but only for cause stated to the court. The court shall determine the relevancy and validity of any challenge, and shall not receive a challenge to more than one member at a time. The party whose conduct is being inquired into shall have the right to be represented before the court by counsel of his own selection, if such counsel be reasonably available. Article 101. Oath of Members and Recorders – The recorded of the court of inquiry shall administer to the members the following oath: “You, A.B., do swear (or affirm) that you will well and faithfully examine and inquire, according to the evidence, into the matter now before you without partiality, favor, affection, prejudice, or hope of reward. So help you God.” After which the president of the court shall administer to the recorder the following oath: “You, A.B., do swear (or affirm) that you will, according to your best abilities, accurately and impartially record the proceedings of the court and the evidence to be given in the case in hearing. So help you God.” In case of affirmation, the closing sentence of adjuration will be omitted. Article 102. Powers; Procedure – A court of inquiry and the recorder thereof shall have the same power to summon and examine witnesses as is given to courts-martial and the trial judge advocate thereof. Such witnesses shall take same oath or affirmation that is taken by witnesses before a court-martial. A reporter or interpreter for a court of inquiry shall, before entering upon his duties, take the oath or affirmation required of a reporter or interpreter for a court-martial. The party whose conduct is being inquired into or his counsel, if any, shall be permitted to examine and cross-examine witnesses so as fully to investigate the circumstances in question. Article 103. Opinion on Merits of the Case – A court of inquiry shall not give an opinion on the merits of the case inquired into unless specially ordered to do so. Article 104. Record of Proceedings, How Authenticated – Each court of inquiry shall keep a record of its proceedings, which shall be authenticated by the signature of the president and the recorder thereof, and be forwarded to the convening authority. In case the record cannot be authenticated by the recorder, by reason of his death, disability, or absence, it shall be signed by the president and by one other member of the court.
ð Article 105 – PD 1968 – reproduced verbatim below.

PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 1968
January 11, 1985

FURTHER AMENDING ARTICLE 105 OF COMMONWEALTH ACT NO. 408, OTHERWISE KNOWN AS “THE ARTICLES OF WAR, ARMED FORCES OF THE PHILIPPINES,” AS AMENDED BY REPUBLIC ACT NUMBERED 242 AND 516 WHEREAS, The disciplinary powers of commanding officers under the present Article of War 105 have not provided the desired deterrent against the commission of transgressions by members of the Armed Forces of the Philippines; WHEREAS, The present Article of War 105 likewise is not conducive to swift and decisive disciplinary action against erring members of the Armed Forces; WHEREAS, It is vital to make more effective these disciplinary punishments that may be imposed, enlarging the scope thereof as well as the categories of commanding officers authorized to impose disciplinary punishments, and providing for a swifter and more vigorous procedure in the imposition of disciplinary punishments, while at the same time affording members of the Armed Forces substantial justice and fairness and due process of law. NOW, THEREFORE, I, FERDINAND E. MARCOS, President of the Philippines, by virtue of the powers vested in me by the Constitution and as Commander-in-Chief of all Armed Forces of the Philippines, do hereby order and decree as part of the law of the land as follows: Article 105. Disciplinary Powers of Commanding Officers. —

The commanding officer of any detachment, company, battalion, squadron, commissioned vessel, or higher command, or such other officers as may be authorized by the President, may, for minor offenses, impose disciplinary punishments upon persons of his command without the intervention of a court-martial.
Subject to subsection g of this article, any commanding officer may, in addition to or in lieu of admonition or reprimand, impose one or more of the following disciplinary punishments, but shall not include confinement under guard:

(1) Upon officers of his command — (a) Withholding of privileges for not more than 30 consecutive days; (b) Restriction to certain specified limits, with or without suspension from duty, for not more than 30 consecutive days; (c) Arrest in quarters for not more than 15 consecutive days; (d) Forfeiture of not more than one-half one month’s base pay; (e) Detention or withholding of not more than one-half of one month’s base pay per month for three months; (f) Deprivation of liberty on shore not exceeding 30 consecutive days; for those attached to or embarked in a commissioned vessel of the Philippine Navy. (g) If imposed by an officer exercising general court-martial jurisdiction or by an officer of general or flag rank in command — [i] Withholding of privileges for not more than 60 consecutive days; [ii] Restriction to certain specified limits, with or without suspension from duty, for not more than 60 consecutive days; [iii] Arrest in quarters for not more than 30 consecutive days; [iv] Forfeiture of not more than one-half of one month’s base pay per month for three months; [v] Detention or withholding of not more than one-half of month’s base pay for six months; [vi] Deprivation of liberty on shore not exceeding 60 consecutive days, for those attached to or embarked in a commissioned vessel of the Philippine Navy. (2) Upon other personnel of his command. — (a) Withholding of privileges for not more than 30 consecutive days; (b) Restriction to certain specified limits, with or without suspension from duty, for not more than 30 consecutive days; (c) Arrest in quarters for not more than 15 consecutive days; (d) Forfeiture of not more than one-half of one month’s base pay; (e) Detention or withholding of not more than one-half of one month’s base pay per month for three months; (f) With respect to those attached to or embarked in a commissioned vessel of the Philippine Navy — [i] Deprivation of liberty on shore not exceeding 30 consecutive days; [ii] Confinement on bread and water or diminished rations for not more than five consecutive days; (g) Confinement not under guard for not more than 15 consecutive days; (h) Hard labor without confinement for not more than 15 consecutive days; (i) Extra duties, including fatigue or other duties, for not more than 15 consecutive days; (j) Correctional custody for not more than 15 consecutive days; (k) Reduction to one or two inferior pay grades, if the grades from which demoted is within the promotion authority of the officer imposing the reduction or any officer subordinate to the one who imposes the reduction. (l) If imposed by an officer in the grade of lieutenant colonel or commander — [i] Withholding of privileges for not more than 60 consecutive days; [ii] Restriction to certain specified limits, with or without suspension from duty, for not more than 60 consecutive days; [iii] Arrest in quarters for not more than 30 consecutive days; [iv] Forfeiture of not more than one-half of one month’s base pay for two months; [v] Detention or withholding of not more than one-half of month’s base pay for six months; [vi] With respect to those attached to or embarked in a commissioned vessel of the Philippine Navy, deprivation of liberty on shore not exceeding 60 consecutive days, or confinement on bread and water or diminished rations for not more than five consecutive days; [vii] Confinement no under guard for not more than 30 consecutive days; [viii] Hard labor without confinement for not more than 30 consecutive days; [ix] Extra duties, including fatigue or other duties, for not more than 45 consecutive days; [x] Correctional custody for not more than 30 consecutive days; [xi] Reduction to the lowest or any intermediate pay grade, if the grade from which demoted is within the promotion authority of the officer imposing the reduction or any officer subordinate to the one who imposes the reduction, but an enlisted member in a pay grade above E-4 may not be reduced more than two pay grades. c. The officer who imposes the punishment, or his successor in command may, at anytime, suspend probationally any part or amount of the unexecuted punishment imposed and may suspend probationally a reduction in grade or a forfeiture, whether or not executed. He may also, at any time, remit or mitigate any part or amount of the unexecuted punishment imposed and may set aside in whole or in part the punishment, whether executed or not executed, and restore all rights, privileges and property affected. He may also mitigate a reduction in grade to forfeiture or detention of pay. d. A person punished under this article who considers his punishment unjust or disproportionate to the offense may, through the proper channel, appeal to the next superior authority, but may in the meantime be required to undergo the punishment adjudged. The superior authority may exercise the same powers with respect to the punishment imposed as may be exercised under the preceding subsection by the officer who imposed the punishment. e. The imposition and enforcement of disciplinary punishment under this article for any act or omission shall not be a bar to trial by court-martial for a serious crime or offense growing out of the same act or omission, and not properly punishable under this article; but the fact that a disciplinary punishment has been enforced may be shown by the accused upon trial, and when so shown shall be considered in determining the measure of punishment to be adjudged in the event of a finding of guilty. f. A commanding officer exercising general court-martial jurisdiction or an officer of general or flag rank in command may delegate his powers under this article to a principal assistant. g. Under such regulations as the President may prescribe, limitations may be placed on the powers granted by this article with respect to the kind and amount of punishment authorized and the categories of commanding officers authorized to exercise these powers. Under similar regulations, rules may be prescribed with respect to the suspension, apportionment, remission, mitigation, setting aside of the punishments imposed, or the restoration of rights, privileges and property affected by the punishments imposed, and the form of records to be kept of proceedings under this article, and what categories of these proceedings shall be in writing. h. Any officer meted punishment under this article by an officer exercising general court-martial jurisdiction or a general or flag rank in command shall automatically be considered on non-promotable status for a period of one year from the date of the imposition of the punishment. The imposition by an officer exercising general court-martial jurisdiction or a general or flag rank in command of three years next proceeding the consideration for promotion of an officer shall constitute a ground for deferment from promotion of the officer. Any enlisted person meted punishment under the provisions of this article by an officer in the grade of lieutenant colonel or commander shall automatically be considered on non-promotable status for a period of one year from the date of the imposition of punishment. i. Any commanding officer who refuses to act or delays action on a valid complaint against a person under his command, or refuses or delays to impose a disciplinary punishment under this article when warranted by the evidence, or otherwise aids or abets the wrongdoing of a subordinate shall be subject to action under this article by his immediate superior officer or punished as a court-martial may direct.”

SECTION 2. All provisions of existing laws, decrees, general orders, or regulations, or portions thereof, which are inconsistent with the provisions of this decree, are hereby repealed or modified accordingly. SECTION 3. This decree shall take effect upon approval. Done in the City of Manila, this 11th day of January, in the year of Our Lord, nineteen hundred and eighty-five.

Article 106. Injuries to Property – Redress of – Whenever complaint is made to any commanding officer that damage has been done to the property of any person or that his property has been wrongfully taken by persons subject to military law, such complaint shall be investigated by a board consisting of any number of officers from one to three, which board shall be convened by the commanding officer and shall have, for the purpose of such investigation, power to summon witnesses and examine them upon oath or affirmation, to receive depositions or other documentary evidence, and to assess the damages sustained against the responsible parties. The assessment of damages made by such board shall be subject to the approval of the commanding officer, and in an amount approved by him, shall be stopped against the pay of the offenders. And the order of such commanding officer directing stoppages herein authorized shall be conclusive on any disbursing officer for the payment by him to the injured parties of the stoppages so collected. When the offenders cannot be ascertained, but the organization or detachment to which they belong is known, stoppages to the amount of damages inflicted may be made and assessed in such proportion as may be deemed just upon the individual members thereof who are shown to have been present with such organization or detachment at the time the damages complained of were inflicted as determined by the approved findings of the board. Article 107. Arrest of Deserters by Civil Officials – It shall be lawful for any civil officer having authority under the laws of the Philippines to arrest offenders, summarily to arrest a deserter, and deliver him into the custody of the authorities concerned. (As amended by RA 242) Article 108. Soldiers to Make Good Time Lost – Every soldier or trainee who in an existing or subsequent enlistment or training period deserts the service of the Armed Forces of the Philippines or the Philippine Constabulary, or, without proper authority, absents himself from his organization, station, or duty for more than one day, or who is confined for more than one day under sentence, or while awaiting trial and disposition of his case, if the trial results in conviction, or through the intemperate use of drugs or alcoholic liquor, or through disease or injury the results of his own misconduct, renders himself unable for more than one day to perform duty, shall be liable to serve, after his return to full-duty status, for such period as shall, with the time he may have served prior to such desertion, unauthorized absence, confinement or inability to perform duty, amount to the full term of that part of his enlistment or training period for which he is required to serve with his organization before being furloughed to the Army reserve. (As amended by RA 242) Article 109. Soldiers – Separation From Service – No enlisted man in the military service of the Philippines or in the Philippine Constabulary shall be discharged from said service without a certificate of discharge signed by a field officer of the regiment or other organization to which the enlisted man belongs, or by the commanding officer when no such field officer is present, and no enlisted man shall be discharged from said service before his term of service has expired, except by order of the President, the Chief of Staff, the Chief of Constabulary, by sentence of a general court-martial, or by sentence of bad-conduct discharge of a special court-martial. (As amended by RAs 242 and 516) Article 110. Oath of Enlistment – At the time of his enlistment, every soldier shall take the following oath or affirmation: “I, …………., solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the Republic of the Philippines; that I will serve it honestly and faithfully against all its enemies whomsoever; that I will support and defend the Constitution of the Philippines; that I will obey the orders of the President of the Philippines and the orders of the officers appointed over me, according to the rules and articles or war; and that I impose this obligation upon myself voluntarily, without mental reservation or purpose of evasion. So help me God.” This oath or affirmation may be taken before any officer. (As amended by RA 242) Article 111. Certain Articles to be Read and Explained – Articles 1, 2 and 28, 54 to 97, inclusive, and 105 to 110, inclusive, shall be read and explained to every soldier at the time of his enlistment or muster in, or within six days thereafter, and shall be read and explained once every six months to the soldier of every garrison, regiment, or company in the service of the Philippines. Article 112. Copy of Record of Trial – Every person tried by a general court-martial shall, on demand therefore, made by himself or by any person in his behalf, be entitled to a copy of the record of the trial. Article 113. Inquests – When at any post, fort, camp, or other place garrisoned by the military forces of the Philippines, any person shall have been found dead under circumstances which appear to required investigation, the commanding officer will designate and direct a summary court-martial to investigate the circumstances attending the death; and for this purpose, such summary court-martial shall have power to summon witnesses and examine them upon oath or affirmation. He shall promptly transmit to the post or other commander a report of his investigation and of his findings as to the cause of death. Article 113-A Effects of Deceased Persons – Disposition of – In case of the death of any person subject to military law, the commanding officer of the place or command will permit the legal representative or widow of the deceased, if present, to take possession of all his effects then in camp or quarters; and if no legal representative or widow be present, the commanding officer shall direct a summary court officer to secure all such effects, and said officer shall have authority to collect and receive any debts due the decedent’s estate by local debtors and to pay the undisputed local creditors of the decedent in so far as any money which may come into said summary court officer’s possession under these Articles will permit, taking receipts therefore for file with said officer’s final report of his transactions to the Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines or the Chief of Constabulary: Provided, that wills or other papers involving property rights shall be promptly transmitted to the Judge Advocate General, Armed Forces of the Philippines, who shall commence appropriate proceedings with regards thereto in the Courts of First Instance of the province where the deceased died. As soon as practicable after the collection of such effects and the deceased left no will, said summary court officer shall transmit such effects and money collected, through the Quartermaster Service, at government expense, to the widow or legal representative of the deceased, if such be found by such officer, or to the son, daughter, father, mother, brother, sister, or the next of kin, in the order named, if such be found by said officer. Such officer shall thereupon make to the Chief of Staff or Chief of Constabulary a full report of his transactions; but if there be none of the persons hereinabove named, or such persons or their addresses are not known to or readily ascertainable, said officer shall transmit within twenty days to the chief of Quartermaster Service after the death of the deceased, all effects of the deceased, including sabers, insignia, decorations, medals, watches, trinkets, manuscripts, and other articles valuable chiefly as keepsakes, together with an inventory of the effects secured by said summary court officer, and full account of his transactions, to the Chief of Staff or the Chief of Constabulary for transmission to the Judge Advocate General for action as hereinbelow authorized in the settlement of accounts of deceased officers and enlisted men of the Armed Forces of the Philippines or Philippine Constabulary, subject to the provisions of the Rules of Court and the civil law, as they do not conflict with these provisions. The Judge Advocate General of the Armed Forces of the Philippines is hereby empowered to administer the disposition of the effects of persons who, at the time of their death, are subject to military law. If the heirs or legal representatives of the deceased person can not be ascertained, the remaining effects shall be retained in the Quartermaster Service until two years shall have expired from the death of the person on whose behalf they were received for the purpose of delivering them to the widow or legal representative, or the heirs of the deceased in the order of intestate succession established by the Civil Code, unless the deceased left a will, in which case the remaining effects shall be distributed in accordance therewith after its probate. After the expiration of two years from the death of said deceased, and upon notification by the Judge Advocate General, the Chief of Quartermaster Service shall sell all public sale or in any manner deemed most advantageous, all or any such effects to which a right shall not have been established on behalf of said deceased, his heirs, or legal representative; provided, that decorations, medals, and citations shall not be sold, but shall be disposed of in such manner as in the interest of the public it deems most fitting, helpful, and appropriate, either by permanent retention thereof, distribution to museums, or to other government institutions, or their destruction, of in the opinion of the Chief of Staff or the Chief of Constabulary, they no longer possess any value. The net proceeds from the sale shall be deposited with the National Treasury for the account of the Armed Forces of the Philippines or of the Philippine Constabulary, depending on which organization the deceased belonged, and shall be withdrawn only by authority of the Judge Advocate General, who is hereby authorized to disburse and pay from said fund all such claims which may be established to his satisfaction under existing law; provided, that any claim not filed with the Judge Advocate General within five (5) years from the death of such deceased shall be forever be barred. All funds remaining after the payment of such claims as herein provided shall form part of the general fund of the Armed Forces of the Philippines or of the Philippine Constabulary and may be expended at the discretion of the Chief of Staff of the Chief of Constabulary for such purposes which are deemed best for the general benefit of the organization to which the deceased belonged. (As amended by RA 242) Article 114. Authority to Administer Oaths – Any judge advocate or acting judge advocate, the president of a general or special court-martial, any summary court-martial, the trial judge advocate or any assistant trial judge advocate of a general or special court-martial, the president or the recorder of a court of inquiry or a military board, any officer designated to take a deposition, any officer detailed to conduct an investigation, and the adjutant of any command shall have the power to administer oaths for the purpose of the administration of military justice and for other purposes of military administration. Article 115. Appointment of Reporters and Interpreters – Under such regulations as the President of the Philippines may from time to time prescribe, the president of a court-martial or military commission or a court of inquiry shall have the power to appoint a reporter, who shall record the proceedings of and testimony taken before such court or commission and may set down the same, in the first instance, in shorthand. Under like regulations, the president of a court-martial or military commission, or court of inquiry, or summary court, may appoint an interpreter, who shall interpret for the court or commission. Article 116 Powers of Assistant Trial Judge Advocate and of Assistant Defense Counsel – An assistant trial judge advocate of a general court-martial shall be competent to perform any duty devolved by law, regulation, or the custom of the service upon the trial judge advocate of the court. An assistant defense counsel shall be competent, likewise, to perform any duty devolved by law, regulation, or the custom of the service upon counsel for the accused. Article 117 Officers, Separation from Service – No officer shall be discharged or dismissed from the service except by order of the President or by sentence of a general court-martial; and in time of peace no officer shall be dismissed except in pursuance of the sentence of a general court-martial, or in mitigation thereof; but the President may at any time drop from the rolls of the Army any officer who has been absent from duty three months without leave, or who has been absent in confinement in a prison or penitentiary for three months after final conviction by a court of competent jurisdiction. Article 118 Rank and Precedence Among Regulars and Reserves – In time of war or public danger, when two or more officers of the same grade are on duty in the same field, or command, or of organizations thereof, the President may assign the command of the forces of such field, or command, or of any organization thereof, without regard to seniority of rank in the same grade. Article 119 Command when Different Corps or Commands Happen to Join – When different corps or commands of the military forces of the Philippines happen to join or do duty together, the officer highest in rank in the line of the Regular Army or Reserve Force shall, subject to the provisions of the last preceding Article, command the whole and give orders for what is needful in the service, unless otherwise directed by the President. Article 120 Complaints of Wrongs – Any member of the Armed Forces of the Philippines or of the Philippine Constabulary who believes himself wronged by his commanding officer, and, upon due application to such commander, is refused redress, may complain to the area or zone commander or the next superior officer in the area or zone where the officer against whom the complaint is made is stationed. The area or zone commander or next superior officer shall examine into said complaint and take proper measures for redressing the wrong complained of; and he shall, as soon as possible, transmit to Headquarters, Armed Forces of the Philippines, a true statement of said complaint, with the proceedings had thereon. (As amended by RA 242) Section 2. All offenses committed prior to the date of effectiveness of this Act shall be punished in accordance with the law and regulations in force at the time of their commission. Section 3. All laws and parts of laws in so far as they are inconsistent with this Act are hereby repealed. Section 3. This Act shall take effect upon its approval Approved, September 14, 1968.

TABLE OF AUTHORIZED MAXIMUM PUNISHMENTS

UNDER AFP ARTICLE OF WAR 105

[PD 1968; 11 Jan 85 / EO 1005; 28 Jan 85 / Cir 4, GHQ, AFP; 30 April 86]

Authorized By a CO w/GCM jurisdiction By a CO w/ rank of By a CO w/ rank of punishments – a General or Flag Officer Lt Col / CDR or over Major or below
1. withholding of privileges

officer 60 days

EP 60 days

officer 30 days

EP 60 days

officer 30 days

EP 30 days

2. Restriction

60 days

60 days

30 days

60 days

30 days

30 days

3. Arrest in quarters

30 days

30 days

15 days

30 days

15 days

15 days

4. Forfeiture of pay

½ of 1 month’s pay for 3 months

½ of 1 month’s pay for 2 mos

½ of 1 month’s pay for 1 mo

½ of 1 month’s pay for 2 mo

½ of 1 month’s pay for 1 mo

½ of 1 mo’s pay for 1 mo
5. Detention or with-holding of pay

½ of 1 month’s pay for 6 months

½ of 1 month’s pay for 4 mos

½ of 1 month’s pay for 3 mos

½ of 1 month’s pay for 4 mos

½ of 1 month’s pay for 3 mos

½ of 1 mo’s pay for 3 mos

5. Deprivation of liberty

60 days

60 days

30 days

60 days

30 days

30 days

6. Reprimand

YES

YES

YES

YES

YES

YES

7. Admonition

YES

YES

YES

YES

YES

YES

8. Hard labor w/out confinement

NO

30 days

NO

30 days

NO

15 days
10. Confinement

NO

30 days

NO

30 days

NO

15 days
11. Correctional custody

NO

30 days

NO

30 days

NO

15 days
12. Extra Duties

NO

45 days

NO

45 days

NO

15 days
13. Reduction in Rank

NO

For EP above E4, 2 ranks only; others = to lowest or any lower rank

NO

For EP above E4, 2 ranks only; others = to lowest or any lower rank

NO

For all EP – not lower than 1 or 2 ranks

[1] Military Statute of Limitations; prescription of purely military offenses
[2] Prescription of purely military offenses

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